e-hub Assist - Research evidence

Research evidence


MoodGYM has been shown to be effective in reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms in users in a large number of published research trials undertaken by research groups within and outside of Australia. These include studies: in a range of settings (e.g., schools, universities, Lifeline, NHS Choices online); across the mental health care spectrum (from prevention to treatment); with different age groups (adults, adolescents); with a range of population groups (e.g. students, primary care patients, community users); in different countries; and with and without guidance.

A recent meta-analysis of 12 studies found that MoodGYM is effective at reducing depression and anxiety symptoms in adult populations, with some evidence suggesting that it is also effective at reducing general psychological distress.

Studies have also reported MoodGYM to be effective in reducing hazardous alcohol use, reducing suicide risk in high-risk populations, and in improving wellbeing and quality of life in users. User satisfaction of MoodGYM is high, and evaluation studies suggest that MoodGYM is a viable option for those who cannot access face-to-face therapy, and for those waiting for traditional services. There is also demonstrated cost effectiveness of translating MoodGYM, which currently operates in five languages.

Batterham, P. J., Neil, A. L., Bennett, K., Griffiths, K. M., & Christensen, H. (2008). Predictors of adherence among community users of a cognitive behavior therapy website. Patient Prefer Adherence, 2, 97-105. [Abstract]

Calear, A., Christensen, H., Mackinnon, A., Griffiths, K.M. (2013). Adherence to the MoodGYM program: Outcomes and predictors for an adolescent school-based population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 147(1-3), 338-344. [Abstract]

Calear, A. L., Christensen, H., Mackinnon, A., Griffiths, K. M. & O'Kearney, R. (2009). The YouthMood project: A cluster randomized controlled trial of an online cognitive-behavioral program with adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(6), 1021-1032. [Abstract]

Christensen, H., Farrer, L., Batterham, P. J., Mackinnon, A., Griffiths, K. M., & Donker, T. (2013). The effect of a web-based depression intervention on suicide ideation: secondary outcome from a randomised controlled trial in a helpline. BMJ Open, 3(6). [a href="http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/3/6/e002886.full">Full text]

Christensen, H., Griffiths, K., Groves, C. & Korten, A. (2006). Free range users and one hit wonders: Community users of an internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy program. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 59-62. [Abstract]

Christensen, H., Griffiths, K. & Jorm, A. F. (2004). Delivering depression interventions using the internet: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 328, 1-5. [Abstract]

Christensen, H., Griffiths, K., Korten, A., Brittliffe, K. & Groves, C. (2004). A comparison of changes in anxiety and depression symptoms of spontaneous users and trial participants of a cognitive behaviour therapy website. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 6(4), 1-10. [Abstract]

Christensen, H., Griffiths, K., Mackinnon, A. J. & Brittliffe, K. (2006). Online randomized controlled trial of brief and full cognitive behaviour therapy for depression. Psychological Medicine, 36(12), 1737-1746. [Abstract]

Donker, T., Batterham, P. J., Warmerdam, L., Bennett, K., Bennett, A., Cuijpers, P., Griffiths, K.M., & Christensen, H. (2013). Predictors and moderators of response to internet-delivered interpersonal psychotherapy and cognitive behavior therapy for depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(1), 343-351. [Abstract]

Donker, T., Bennett, K., Bennett, A., Mackinnon, A., van Straten, A., Cuijpers, P., Christensen, H. & Griffiths, M. K. (2013). Internet-delivered interpersonal psychotherapy versus internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with depressive symptoms: randomized controlled noninferiority trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15(5), e82. [Abstract]

Eells, T. D., Barrett, M. S., Wright, J. H., & Thase, M. (2013). Computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy for depression. Psychotherapy, 51(2), 191-197.[Abstract]

Farrer, L., Christensen, H., Griffiths, K. M., & Mackinnon, A. (2011).Internet-based CBT for depression with and without telephone tracking in a national helpline: Randomised controlled trial. PLOS One, 6(11), e28099. [Abstract]

Farrer, L., Christensen, H., Griffiths, K.M., & Mackinnon, A. (2012). Web-based cognitive behavior therapy for depression with and without telephone tracking in a national helpline: Secondary outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14(3), 64-73. [Abstract]

Gilbody, S., Littlewood, E., Hewitt, C., Brierley, G., Tharmanathan, P., Araya, R.,White, D. (2015). Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) as treatment for depression in primary care (REEACT trial): large scale pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 351. [Abstract]

Griffiths, K. M., Christensen, H., Jorm, A. F., Evans, K. & Groves, C. (2004). Effect of web-based depression literacy and cognitive-behavioural therapy interventions on stigmatising attitudes to depression: Randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 185, 342-349. [Abstract]

Guille, C., Zhao, Z., Krystal, J., Nichols, B., Brady, K., & Sen, S. (2015). Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for the prevention of suicidal ideation in medical interns: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 1-7. [Abstract]

Hickie, I. B., Davenport, T. A., Luscombe, G. M., Moore, M., Griffiths, K. M., & Christensen, H. (2010). Practitioner-supported delivery of internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy: evaluation of the feasibility of conducting a cluster randomised trial. Medical Journal of Australia, 192(11), 31-35. [Abstract]

Hind, D., O’Cathain, A., Cooper, C. L., Parry, G. D., Isaac, C. L., Rose, A., Martin, L., & Sharrack, B. (2009). The acceptability of computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of depression in people with chronic physical disease: A qualitative study of people with multiple sclerosis. Psychology & Health, 25(6), 699-712. [Abstract]

Hoifodt, R. S., Lillevoll, K. R., Griffiths, K. M., Wilsgaard, T., Eisemann, M., Waterloo, K., & Kolstrup, N. (2013). The clinical effectiveness of web-based cognitive behavioral therapy with face-to-face therapist support for depressed primary care patients: randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15(8), e153. [Abstract]

Hoifodt, R.S, Mittner, M., Lillevoll, K., Kvam Katla, S., Kolstrup, N., Eisemann, M., Waterloo, K. (2015). Predictors of Response to Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With High-Intensity Face-to-Face Therapist Guidance for Depression: A Bayesian Analysis. Journal of medical Internet research, 17(9), 1-22. [Abstract]

Lillevoll, K. R., Vangberg, H. C., Griffiths, K. M., Waterloo, K., & Eisemann, M. R. (2014). Uptake and adherence of a self-directed internet-based mental health intervention with tailored e-mail reminders in senior high schools in Norway. BMC Psychiatry, 14. [Abstract]

Lillevoll, K. R., Wilhelmsen, M., Kolstrup, N., Hoifodt, R. S., Waterloo, K., Eisemann, M., & Risor, M. B. (2013). Patients' experiences of helpfulness in guided internet-based treatment for depression: qualitative study of integrated therapeutic dimensions. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15(6), e126. [Abstract]

Lintvedt, O. K., Griffiths, K. M., Eisemann, M., & Waterloo, K. (2013). Evaluating the translation process of an internet-based self-help intervention for prevention of depression: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15(1), e18. [Abstract]

Lintvedt, O. K., Griffiths, K. M., Sørensen, K., Østvik, A. R., Wang, C. E. A., Eisemann, M., & Waterloo, K. (2013). Evaluating the effectiveness and efficacy of unguided internet-based self-help intervention for the prevention of depression: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 20(1), 10-27. [Abstract]

Mackinnon, A., Griffiths, K. & Christensen, H. (2008).Comparative randomised trial of online cognitive-behavioural therapy and an information website for depression: 12-month outcomes. British Journal of Psychiatry, 2, 130-134. [Abstract]

Menga, G. D. O., Ing, S., Khan, O. D., Dupre, B., Dornelles, A., Alarakhia, A., Davis, W., Zakem, J., Webb-Detiege, T., Scopelitis, E., & Quinet, R. (2014). Fibromyalgia: Can online cognitive behavioral therapy help? The Ochsner Journal, 14(3), 343-349. [Abstract]

Neil, A. L., Batterham, P., Christensen, H., Bennett, K., & Griffiths, K. M. (2009). Predictors of adherence by adolescents to a cognitive behavior therapy website in school and community-based settings. Journal of Medical Internet research, 11(1), e6. [Abstract]

O'Kearney, R., Gibson, M., Christensen, H. & Griffiths, K. (2006). Effects of a cognitive-behavioral internet program on depression, vulnerability to depression and stigma in adolescent males: A school based controlled trial. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 35(1), 43-54. [Abstract]

O'Kearney, R., Kang, K., Christensen, H. & Griffiths, K. (2009). A controlled trial of a school-based internet program for reducing depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Depression & Anxiety, 26(1), 65-72. [Abstract]

Phillips, R., Schneider, J., Molosankwe, I., Leese, M., Foroushani, P. S., Grime, P., McCrone, P., Morriss, R., & Thornicroft, G. (2014). Randomized controlled trial of computerized cognitive behavioural therapy for depressive symptoms: effectiveness and costs of a workplace intervention. Psychological Medicine, 44(4), 741-752. [Abstract]

Powell, J., Hamborg, T., Stallard, N., Burls, A., McSorley, J., Bennett, K., Griffiths, K.M., Christensen, H. (2013). Effectiveness of a web-based cognitive-behavioral tool to improve mental well-being in the general population: randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15(1), e2. [Abstract]

Schneider, J., Sarrami Foroushani, P., Grime, P., & Thornicroft, G. (2014). Acceptability of online self-help to people with depression: users' views of MoodGYM versus informational websites. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(3), e90. [Abstract]

Sethi, S., Campbell, A. J., Ellis, L. A. (2010).The use of computerized self-help packages to treat adolescent depression and anxiety. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 28(3), 144-160. 2010; 28:144-160. [Abstract]

Topolovec-Vranic, J., Cullen, N., Michalak, A., Ouchterlony, D., Bhalerao, S., Masanic, C., & Cusimano, M. D. (2010). Evaluation of an online cognitive behavioural therapy program by patients with traumatic brain injury and depression. Brain Injury, 24(5), 762-772. [Abstract]

Twomey, C. and O'Reilly, G. (2016) Effectiveness of a freely available computerised cognitive behavioural therapy programme (MoodGYM) for depression: Meta-analysis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. [Full text]

Twomey, C., O'Reilly, G., Byrne, M., Bury, M., White, A., Kissane, S., Aisling, M., & Clancy, N. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of the computerized CBT programme, MoodGYM, for public mental health service users waiting for interventions. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. [Abstract]

Wilhelmsen, M., Høifødt, R. S., Kolstrup, N., Waterloo, K., Eisemann, M., Chenhall, R., & Risør, M. B. (2014). Norwegian General Practitioners’ perspectives on implementation of a guided web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for depression: A qualitative Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(9), e208. [Abstract]

Wilhelmsen, M., Lillevoll, K., Risor, M. B., Hoifodt, R., Johansen, M. L., Waterloo, K., Eisemann, M., & Kolstrup, N. (2013). Motivation to persist with internet-based cognitive behavioural treatment using blended care: a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry, 13. [Abstract]